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Titanium is a metallic element, gray, atomic number 22, relative atomic mass 47.867. It can burn in nitrogen with a high flame point. Passive titanium and titanium-based Taijin are new structural materials, mainly used in the aerospace industry and the marine industry. Because titanium has the characteristics of high melting point, small specific gravity, high specific strength, good toughness, fatigue resistance, acid and alkali corrosion resistance, low thermal conductivity, good high and low temperature tolerance, and low stress under rapid cooling and rapid heating conditions, its commercial value is in In the 1950s, it was recognized by people and used in high-tech fields such as aviation and aerospace. With the continuous promotion to chemical, petroleum, electric power, seawater desalination, construction, daily necessities and other industries, titanium metal is increasingly valued by people, known as modern metal, smart metal, strategic metal, and is indispensable to improve the level of national defense equipment. important strategic material.
1 Physical properties. Pure titanium is silver-white. Compared with other metal materials, the characteristics of titanium are as follows:
①The flame point is as high as 1660 degrees.
② Titanium has a close-packed hexagonal lattice at room temperature (below 885 degrees), and a body-centered cubic lattice when it is higher than 885 degrees. At the same time, the volume has increased by 5.5%. ③The density of titanium is about 4.51g/cm3, which is about 60% of that of stainless steel, and exceeds that of aluminum by about 60%.
④Although the tensile strength of pure titanium is 350-700MPa, the general titanium alloy can reach 700-1200MPa. It can even reach 1400MP3. Therefore, the specific strength of titanium alloy (that is, the ratio of strength to density) is larger than that of any other material at present. .
⑤ The specific heat, thermal conductivity and resistivity of titanium are at the same level as those of stainless steel, but the tensile coefficient of titanium is 50% smaller than that of steel. Titanium has poor thermal conductivity. Electrical conductivity is also poor. similar to stainless steel.
⑥The Young’s modulus of titanium is smaller than that of stainless steel, and it can be electrically resisted under lower stress.
⑦ Follow stable creep characteristics in the temperature range of 200-300.
2. Chemical properties
①Acid with acid At room temperature, titanium is not easy to react with inorganic acid, but it can react after heating.
②Reaction with alkali Titanium reacts very slowly with ordinary alkali solutions and does not react with dilute alkali solutions.
③ In the case of interaction with non-metals, titanium is not very active, but at high temperatures, titanium can directly form very stable, hard and insoluble interstitial compounds with many non-metallic elements.
④An important characteristic of gettering titanium is that it can strongly absorb gases (oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen). The role of titanium and oxygen and nitrogen is irreversible, so titanium is a good getter. The hydrogen absorbed in titanium can be discharged from the metal when it is heated to 800-900 degrees in a vacuum.
⑤ Machinability The ratio of strength to density of titanium is higher than that of iron and aluminum. It is 1 times stronger than pure iron and 5 times stronger than pure aluminum.
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