Titanim is increasingly valued by people and is known as “modern metal” and “strategic metal”. It is an indispensable important strategic material for improving the level of national defense equipment. It is an important metal that was industrialized in the 1950s. It has excellent properties and abundant reserves. It is a rising “third metal” (the first is iron, the second is aluminum).
01 Properties of Titanium
Titanium metal has excellent characteristics such as low density and high strength, high temperature and low temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, bionics, etc., and can be widely used in various emerging industries.
The disadvantage of titanium is that it has a high reactivity with oxygen and hydrogen in the surrounding environment, which leads to embrittlement of the alloy, so the welding of titanium alloys must be carried out in vacuum or inert gas. At the same time, titanium is easily oxidized, so the maximum service temperature of titanium alloys is also limited by its oxidation characteristics. Since titanium-aluminum compounds can partially overcome this shortcoming, it has become the focus of the development of superalloys; in addition, titanium-based composite materials are also important. research direction.
02 Types of Titanium Products
According to the chemical composition, titanium materials can be divided into industrial pure titanium and titanium alloys. The mechanical properties and chemical properties of industrial pure titanium are similar to those of stainless steel; titanium alloy is an alloy composed of titanium as the matrix and alloying elements such as aluminum, tin, chromium, molybdenum, and manganese.
Titanium is an allotrope (compounds have the same molecular formula, but different structures and properties), with a melting point of 1668 °C and a close-packed hexagonal lattice structure below 882 °C, called alpha titanium; at 882 °C The above is a body-centered cubic lattice structure, which is called beta titanium.
Using the different characteristics of the two structures of titanium, adding appropriate alloying elements to gradually change the phase transition temperature and phase content to obtain titanium alloys with different structures. The alloying elements of titanium can be divided into α-phase stabilizing elements, β-phase stabilizing elements and neutral elements. The α-phase stabilizing elements extend the α-phase region to a higher temperature range, and the β-phase stabilizing elements make the β-phase As the region moves to lower temperatures, neutral elements have less effect on the beta transition temperature. According to the classification of the structure and characteristics of titanium after alloy annealing, titanium alloys can be divided into three types: α type, β type and α+β type:
01 ｜α Type Titanium Alloy
The main components are aluminum and tin added to titanium. The structure in the annealed state is a single-phase α solid solution. The structure is relatively stable at low temperature, with medium strength, good welding performance and corrosion resistance; but the plasticity (deformation ability) is limited, only Deformation at high temperature. Alpha titanium alloys are mainly used in chemical and processing industries.
02 ｜Beta Titanium Alloy
The main components are alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum, and vanadium added to titanium. After quenching, this alloy obtains a β solid solution structure, which is relatively stable at high temperature and has high strength and impact toughness. High cost, so less application.
03 ｜α+β type titanium alloy
The room temperature structure is α + β two-phase structure, with a wide range of mechanical properties, which can be adapted to various uses. Among them, titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (TC4) is the most widely used, it has high strength and toughness, and it can be used at 100-400 ℃. Good heat resistance, good welding performance, stamping performance and forging performance.
03 Grades of titanium and titanium alloys
After nearly 50 years of development, application, registration and standardization of titanium and titanium alloy grades in my country, a relatively complete grade system and standard system have been formed. While in line with international standards ISO and ASTM advanced grades, many domestic New brand independently developed. At present, there are nearly 80 grades of titanium and titanium alloys in my country, which are mainly divided into three categories: TA, TB and TC. TA refers to α-type titanium alloy, TB refers to β-type titanium alloy, and TC refers to α+β-type titanium alloy; It is further divided into TA1, TA2, TA3, etc., the impurity content, mechanical strength and hardness increase in turn with the increase of the number of grades, but the plasticity and toughness decrease accordingly.
The most widely used of all license plates are industrial pure titanium TA1, TA2, TA3, TA4 and titanium alloys Ti-0.3Mo-0.8Ni (TA10), Ti-6Al-4V (TC4). Among them, TC4 application accounts for more than 50%, and another 20%-30% is industrial pure titanium.
01 ｜Industrial pure titanium grade 1 (TA1) – high plasticity pure titanium
TA1 (Gr.1) is a commonly used, low-strength industrial pure titanium with good corrosion resistance, good welding performance, good ductility and other characteristics. This grade of product is suitable for titanium coils in deep drawing applications. It is used in welded pipes (coils), plate heat exchangers, plasma membrane electrolyzers, explosive composite panels, and forming parts of chemical equipment.
02 ｜Industrial pure titanium grade 2 (TA2) – general strength pure titanium
TA2 (Gr.2) is a commonly used industrial pure titanium with general strength. It has many characteristics such as good corrosion resistance, good welding performance and good ductility. This grade is suitable for titanium with corrosion resistance and a certain strength application range. Coiled plates, such titanium materials are widely used in welded pipes (straight pipes) and chemical equipment. Among them, titanium welded pipes are used to make seawater desalination devices, seawater heat exchangers, etc., and chemical equipment is used to make chemical pipe fittings, electroplating equipment, etc.
03｜Industrial pure titanium grade 3 (TA3) – medium strength pure titanium
TA3 (Gr.3) is a common, medium-strength industrial pure titanium with good corrosion resistance, good wear resistance, and good welding performance. This grade of product is suitable for biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and certain strength applications. A wide range of titanium coils, widely used in medical equipment, chemical equipment. Among them, medical equipment includes skull and clavicle internal fixation clips, connecting pieces, micro-bone plates, orifice plates, oral and maxillofacial consumables, etc., chemical equipment includes chemical pipe fittings, valve pumps and hydrofoils, pistons, connecting rods, electroplating hangers, etc. .
04｜Industrial pure titanium grade 4 (TA4) – medium strength pure titanium
TA4 (Gr.4) is a commonly used, medium-strength industrial pure titanium with good corrosion resistance, good welding performance, and good cutting performance. The titanium coil is widely used in medical equipment and chemical equipment. Among them, medical equipment includes surgical repair or replacement materials (bone plate, hip joint, intramedullary nail), etc., and chemical equipment includes chemical pipeline pipe fittings.
05｜Ti-0.3Mo-0.8Ni titanium alloy (TA10) – medium strength alloy
TA10 (Gr.12) is a commonly used, medium-strength industrial titanium alloy. Due to its small alloy content, it is similar to industrial pure titanium in terms of mechanical properties, but it shows excellent corrosion resistance, especially crevice corrosion resistance. It has the characteristics of good corrosion resistance, good welding performance and good cutting performance. This grade of product is a titanium coil suitable for corrosion resistance and a certain strength application range. It is often used in welded pipes, chemical equipment and other fields.
06｜Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy (TC4) – medium strength alloy
TC4 (Gr.5) is an α+β titanium alloy obtained by adding a certain amount of Al and V elements on the basis of industrial pure titanium. It was developed by the United States in the early 1950s and is one of the earliest titanium alloys produced. First, it is also the most in-depth and tested titanium alloy. The alloy has medium strength and suitable plasticity, good welding performance and good corrosion resistance. It is suitable for titanium coils with corrosion resistance and a certain range of strength applications. It is often used in aerospace, medical equipment, shipbuilding and other fields. . Among them, aerospace includes aircraft skins, compressor discs and blades, engine fuel storage tanks, etc., medical devices include surgical repair or replacement materials (bone plates, hip joints, intramedullary nails), and the shipbuilding industry is mainly used for deep sea mining in the ocean. marine pump.
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