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Titanium anode (MMO) is made of noble metal iridium salt coated on titanium substrate and sintered at high temperature. It is widely used in electroplating (deep hole high-demand electroplating copper, electroplating gold in the circuit board industry), electrolysis and other hydrometallurgical industries. The preparation and application of electrodes are quite mature, with a history of 40 years. Compared with traditional platinum-plated electrodes in alkaline copper process, titanium anodes have incomparable advantages over platinum-plated electrodes:
1. Technical characteristics
High current efficiency, excellent antibacterial corrosion performance; long electrode life; can operate with the highest current density, operating current density: “10000A/M2 belongs to the oxygen evolution anode with industrial pure titanium as the base layer.
2. High catalytic activity
As we all know, the platinized electrode is a high peroxygen (1.563V, relative to mercurous sulfate) electrode, while the MMO anode is a low oxygen evolution overvoltage (1.385V relative to mercurous sulfate) electrode, in the anode oxygen evolution zone Oxygen evolution is easier. Therefore, during electrolysis, the tank village is also relatively low, which saves more electricity. This phenomenon has been clearly manifested in the alkaline copper plated wall after copper foil treatment.
3. Pollution-free MMO
The anode coating is a ceramic oxide of noble metal iridium, which is a fairly stable oxide, almost insoluble in any acid and alkali, and the oxide coating is about 20-40µm, and the overall coating oxide content is small . Therefore, the MMO anode does not contaminate the plating solution, which is basically the same as the platinum-plated electrode.
4. High cost performance
The same service life of platinum-plated electrode (coating thickness 3.5mm) has been maintained. The price of MMO anode is about 80% of that of platinum-plated electrode. MMO electrode has better electrochemical stability in alkaline copper electroplating electrolyte, and at the same time It has excellent electrolytic activity and durability. From the cost analysis of the company’s MMO anode and PT electrode, it is obvious that the MMO electrode is economical.
5. Since the application of copper in printed circuits requires the use of pulse period reversal (PPR), we know that the use of platinum-plated titanium insoluble anodes is prohibited. to peel off the platinum layer). However, with dimensionally stable anodes, this phenomenon can be avoided and the performance advantages of insoluble anode technology can be successfully achieved in this application.
6. Minimal anode maintenance. No need to stop production to clean and replenish anodes, replace anode bags and recoat anodes (increased productivity, reduced labor costs);
7. The life of the insoluble anode depends on the type, working current density and contact with various electroplating chemicals;
Positive Directional Pulsation (PPR) Electroplating Anode
Due to the rising price of metal raw materials, copper ions are easily concentrated in the edge part of the hole (the high current density area) and rapidly deposited, while the central part of the hole (that is, the low current density area) The deposition rate is relatively slow. . This results in a very non-uniform distribution of copper deposits: behavior known as “dog-bone” operation at moderate current densities results in dog-bone, at lower current densities barrel cracking, and at higher current densities The phenomenon of burning occurs. It is undoubtedly a heavy impact on the electroplated circuit board.
The reverse pulse electroplating anode is also born. Since the reaction of copper in the printed circuit board requires the use of pulse cycle reverse (PPR) technology, we know that platinum-plated titanium insoluble anodes are used in sulfuric acid electrolytes, where chlorides are present. In this current environment, the platinum layer will peel off after a period of time.
Using forward and reverse pulse electroplating anode, has the following characteristics:
1. The geometry of the anode remains unchanged, so that the current distribution is optimized.
2. Less anode maintenance. There is no need to stop the production line to clean and replenish anodes, replacement of anode bags increases productivity and reduces labor costs.
3. To solve the problem of uniform coating of deep-hole electroplating: high current efficiency, can withstand 1000A/ M2 current density.
4. It will not pollute the electroplating medium.
The positive and negative phase pulse electroplating anode is an oxygen-evolving electrode, which is based on industrial pure titanium (TA2). Electric anode life and excellent corrosion resistance.