Application of titanium in transplantation
Artificial joints and artificial bone replacement materials should have the following basic properties: lightweight and high-strength materials, with biocompatibility and corrosion resistance, the tissue reaction of the implant in the body does not cause material degradation, and caused by repeated stress Fatigue and less damage. The most important properties of metal implants are formability, mechanical properties, and polishability. They must remain functional during their expected life and will not deteriorate when subjected to fatigue, abrasion, corrosion and impact loads. Titanium and titanium alloys meet all requirements. The above requirements. The earliest used artificial joint materials such as dental tray powder, polypropylene, and plexiglass had low strength, easy folding, and poor biocompatibility. Later, stainless steel was used, but the specific gravity of stainless steel was relatively large, about twice that of human bones, and the effect of receptor fluid in the body would cause corrosion and fracture. Co-Cr alloy is also an excellent artificial joint material, but unfortunately, cobalt and chromium are toxic to the human body. Titanium and titanium alloys have low specific gravity (similar to that of human bones), high strength, good machining, and excellent corrosion resistance. They are an ideal artificial joint material.
The titanium materials required for surgical implant materials are mainly pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4VELI alloy. Recently, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-13Nb1-13Zr transplant materials with good affinity to the human body have also obtained ASTM standard approval. Using titanium as artificial bone, cells can be regenerated on it, bones can grow, and titanium has good affinity with human bone, epithelium, and tissues. In order to improve the surface quality of implants connected to human bones, bioceramic layers on roughened surfaces are also effective methods. At present, titanium and titanium alloys have been widely used in artificial bone joints, artificial bones, joint foot plates, broken bone fixators, intramedullary nails, artificial heart valves, craniums, etc. According to statistics, China’s annual demand for titanium alloy artificial joints exceeds 5,000 sets, with good clinical application results.
Application of Titanium Titanium in Orthopedic Surgery
The elastic modulus of medical titanium alloy is closer to human skeleton than stainless steel, which is suitable for human orthopedic surgery. In orthopedics, titanium nickel shape memory alloys are mostly used. Research shows that NT-SMA is a new material integrating wear resistance, corrosion resistance, shape memory effect, pseudo-elasticity and acoustic damping. It is widely used in orthopedics, except for commonly used bone plates, intramedullary needles, and mandibles. In addition to fixation and scoliosis correction, Shanghai Changhai Hospital has performed a series of design and clinical application of NT-SMA, such as NT-concentrator, NT-arc nail, NT-bow device, NT-flying device (specially Designed for reconstruction of the sacrum), etc., and achieved satisfactory results. As for the titanium alloy materials applied to the human body, countries are still working hard to find new titanium alloys that are safer and more reliable for the benefit of people around the world.
Application of titanium in the pharmaceutical industry
Titanium is mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry to make containers, reactors and heaters. In pharmaceutical production, equipment often comes into contact with hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid and other inorganic acids, organic acids and their salts. The equipment is often damaged due to corrosion. At the same time, the product quality is affected by iron ion pollution caused by steel equipment. Titanium equipment is used. Can solve these problems. For example, penicillin esterification kettles, saccharification tanks, chloramphenicol film evaporators, Analin reactors, Mittel filters, dimethyl sulfate coolers, chemical liquid filters, etc., all have precedents for selecting titanium materials. The quantity and quality of the produced medicinal solution are constantly improved, and the quality is in full compliance with the provisions of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
Application of Titanium in Medical Devices
Titanium and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance, titanium is non-toxic and non-magnetic, and is a good material for medical devices. In the history of the development of surgical instruments, the first generation of surgical instruments were mostly made of carbon steel, which was eliminated because the performance of electroplating could not meet the requirements of clinical use. The second generation is austenitic, ferritic, and martensitic stainless steel surgical instruments, but chromium in stainless steel components is toxic, and the detached chrome plating has a certain effect on the human body. Therefore, the third generation-titanium surgical instruments. The lightweight nature of titanium makes it particularly suitable for microsurgery. Titanium has the characteristics of corrosion resistance, good elasticity, non-deformation, resistance to repeated cleaning and disinfection, and the quality of the surface is not affected; non-magnetic, which can eliminate the threat of damage to small and sensitive implanted electronic devices, making titanium surgical instruments increasingly used The wider. It has been used to make surgical blades, hemostats, scissors, electric bone drills, forceps and so on. Titanium vascular suture needles, sternum sutures in medical devices, titanium filters for oxygen filters, one of cardiac surgical instruments, titanium as electrodes in electrocardiographs, and titanium incubators in in vitro culture machines; medical ultrasonic crushing Machine probes, automatic controllers for blood transport boxes, and titanium instruments for ophthalmic surgery are currently in good use.
Dental applications of titanium and titanium alloys
Because titanium has excellent corrosion resistance and human affinity, and considering metal allergy and specific strength, it is suitable for applications in the dental field. Metals used in dental surgery began with amalgam and metal crowns in the 1920s. Gold, silver, and palladium alloys were mainly used in the 1960s, and stainless steel became permanent and removable instruments for orthodontics after the 1970s. The most commonly used material, titanium casting technology was popularized in the 1990s. Dental uses titanium precision casting machine to cast with high dimensional accuracy, no bubbles and shrinkage. Among metal materials used for human hard tissue repair, titanium has the closest elastic modulus to human tissue, which can reduce metal implants and bones. Mechanical incompatibility between tissues. The thermal conductivity of titanium is the lowest of all dental restoration metal materials. Low thermal conductivity can reduce the thermal irritation of dental pulp with crowns, which is important for dental restorations. Titanium inlays, full crowns, etc. can protect the pulp from cold and hot stimulation. In terms of materials, dental titanium is mostly pure titanium, but its strength is insufficient, it is difficult to grind, it has poor wear resistance, it is easy to produce casting defects and its quality is unstable. Titanium alloy has high strength. The most commonly used is Ti-6Al-4V alloy. However, because metal V is harmful to the human body, Nb is used instead of V. The Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy has been successfully developed. It has excellent corrosion resistance and The human body is basically harmless, but also has other advantages such as strong plasticity and excellent abrasiveness, which has been approved by ASTM standards. Currently super-elastic Ti-Ni alloys are being popularized for tooth straightening. Since the 1980s, developed countries have begun to study the application of titanium in dental restorations. It was first used in dental implants and later used in denture brackets, crown bridges and orthodontics. Currently titanium can be used as dental crowns and crown nails , Fixed bridge, porcelain bridge, bonded bridge, denture ring, base, connection device and reinforcement device, almost all metal parts of the denture can be made of titanium. The research on titanium and titanium alloys has become a hot spot in the research of alloys for dental applications. Titanium alloy porcelain teeth can restore the shape and function of the teeth, and have high strength, beautiful appearance, stable color, smooth surface, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. In particular, it has good biocompatibility and is suitable for people who are sensitive to nickel ions. It has been widely used in dental restorations.