It dates back more than 200 years since 1786. The process of electrolysis converts electrical energy into chemical energy. The most representative of the caustic soda industry, the aqueous electrolysis industry, can well illustrate the development history of electrode materials.
At first in the laboratory, brine electrolysis used platinum electrodes, natural carbon electrodes, natural graphite electrodes, magnetic iron oxide electrodes, and lead dioxide electrodes. These are the first tested electrode materials.
Brine electrolysis requires that the anode material has good point catalytic performance for the precipitation of chlorine, good durability, and the ability to inhibit the precipitation of oxygen. The first electrode used in industrial production was graphite electrode. Graphite electrodes can fully meet the above requirements when the salt water concentration is high. However, graphite anodes have the following shortcomings during long-term production: large electrical resistance and therefore large electrical energy consumption; as the electrochemical reaction process progresses, graphite electrodes have large losses. The electrode pitch changes, resulting in unstable electrolysis production; the active surface of the chlorine release reaction is difficult to maintain.
After human history entered the 1960s, the petrochemical industry developed rapidly, and many large-scale ethylene plants were established everywhere, and the synthesis of organic chlorides increased significantly. This requires a big leap in the production of chlor-alkali. At this time, the graphite anode is required to have mechanical processing capability. To open holes on the graphite anode, the processing performance of the graphite anode itself is not very good, and new materials are required to replace it. The development of metal anodes is particularly important. The development of metal anodes has a long history. The earliest metal anodes were mainly platinum anodes, but their cost was expensive and they were not widely used.
From 1910 to 1940, the production of sponge titanium was completed by the magnesium thermal reduction method and the sodium thermal reduction method. And mass production. Titanium is used as the base material for the anode to show its head. Titanium is also called: valve-type metal, which has a stable oxide layer to protect it, so that the anode electrode cannot pass through, so it has good durability and stability under the condition of salt water electrolysis. Metal titanium can be machined at will. Titanium plates, titanium rods, titanium wires, titanium meshes, titanium tubes, porous plates, etc. can be made. Wide range of applications.
In addition to the development of coated electrodes in the 1960s, they were widely used in chemical engineering, environmental protection, water electrolysis, water treatment, electrometallurgy, electroplating, metal foil production, organic electrosynthesis, electrodialysis, and cathodic protection.
And many other industries.
Simply speaking, the production of titanium anodes is to brush or spray precious metal oxides on the basis of titanium materials. At this stage, or internal titanium anodes are mainly brushed. Such electrodes have a very wide range of applications. Titanium anodes are also called DSA anodes due to their light and flexible manufacturing process. Compared with similar anodes, titanium anodes have the following advantages:
The anode size is stable, and the distance between the electrodes does not change during the electrolysis process, which can ensure that the electrolysis operation is performed under the condition of stable cell voltage. The working voltage is low, the power consumption is small, and the DC power consumption can be reduced by 10-20%. Titanium anode has long working life and strong corrosion resistance. It can overcome the dissolution problem of graphite anode and lead anode, and avoid the influence of electrolyte
And the contamination of the cathode product. The current density is high, the overpotential is small, and the electrode catalytic activity is high, which can effectively achieve high production efficiency. It can avoid the short-circuit problem after the lead anode is deformed and improve the current efficiency. The shape is easy to make, and the precision can be improved. The titanium matrix can be reused. 9. With low overpotential characteristics, the bubbles on the surface between the electrodes and the electrodes are easily eliminated, which can effectively reduce the voltage of the electrolytic cell.
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